Okay, so I figured out the headline problem.
When I have the “title toggle” plugin activated to remove page title by default on “pages”, it seems to affect the headline showing on the blog page. Once I changed the setting under “Theme Settings” for Genesis (unchecked “By default, remove titles in the page post type.”) and the headlines to my blog posts now show up on the blog page.
Still having trouble with the feature image showing up.
I found the image sizes in the functions.php file and have saved an image to exactly those specs. Uploaded it to the post under the “Featured Image” section and saved it.
But alas, still now feature image showing up.
Do I need to change the “Media” settings somehow to reflect the functions.php image sizes?